The success of free, ad-funded services has made users the overwhelming beneficiaries in the internet economy, while those services themselves take a much smaller slice of the net benefit, according to new research on the U.S. and European markets by McKinsey for IAB Europe…

“Online advertising largely funds the free web services used daily by billions of users: For 1 Euro spent on online advertising by companies, users get 3 Euros worth of services.

“The estimated consumer service surplus is about